عدد الرسائل : 91 العمر : 48 البلد : ismailia العمل/الترفيه : التربية والتعليم المزاج : رايق تاريخ التسجيل : 18/11/2007

موضوع: Chapter Eleven : Electromagnetic Induction السبت يناير 12, 2008 2:28 am

Definitions and Basic concepts:

1- electromagnetic induction: It is a phenomenon in which an induceelectromotive force and also an induced current are gnerated in the coil on plunging a magnet into or withdrawing a magnet out of a coil. 2- The presence of a soft iron core inside a coil concentrates the lines of magnetic flux that link with the coil. This in turn increases the induced emf and also the induced current. 3- Faraday's laws for the induced emf: induced emf generated in a coil by electromagnetic induction is proportional to the time rate by which the conductor cuts the lines of magnetic flux and is also proportional to the number of turns of the coil. 4- Lenz's rule: The direction of the induced current generated by induction is such that to oppose the change in magnetic flux producing it. 5- Fleming right hand rule: place the thumb, the pointer and the middle finger (with the rest of the fingers) of the right hand mutually at right angles. If the pointer points in the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb in the direction of motion then the middle finger (with the rest of the fingers) will point in the direction of the induced current. 6- Mutual induction: It is thelectromagnetic interaction between two coils kept close to each other (or one inside the other). An electric current with time varying intensity passing in one coil (primary coil) will produce in the second one (secondary coil) an induced current in a direction such that to oppose the variabtions of the current intensity in the primary coil. 7- Self induction: It is the electromagnetic effect induced in the same coil when the intensity of the current increases or decreases. This effect acts to resist such a change in the intensity of current. 8- Coefficient of self induction: It is measured numerically by the "emf" generated by induction in the coil when the intensity of the current passing through it changes at a rate of 1 A/s. 9- The unit of measuring the self induction (Henry): Is the self induction of a coil in which an emf of 1V is induced when a current passes through it which changes at a rate of 1 A/s

10- The self induction of a coil depends on: a) its geometry b) its number of turns. c) the spacing between its turns d) the magnetic permeability of its core. 11- The Dynamo (AC generator): It is advice used to convert the mechanical energy to electric energy (AC current and voltage) when its coil rotates in a magnetic field. 12- The simple dynamo (AC generator) consists of: a) Field magnet (strong magnet). b) a coil of insulated copper wire suspended between the two poles of the magnet. b) Two meltallic rings in contact whith two graphite brushes connected to an external cirrcut. 13- Acommutator: (cylinder split into number of insulated segments) is used to obtain a DC current and voltage (DC generator) 14- The alternating current: It is current which changes periodically its intensity and direction with time according to a sinusoidal curve. 15- The electric transformer: It is an electric device used to step up or step downn AC emf through mutual electromagnetic induction. 16- The efficiency of the transformer: It is the ratio between the out put electric energy given in the secondary and that available to the primary. 17- The electric motor: It is an electric device used to convert the electric energy to mechanical energy.

Basic Laws:: 1- The induced emf generated in a coil of N turns as a result of time variation of magnetic flux Dj_{m} linked with the coil in an interval of time is given by the relation:

2- The negative sign indicate that the direction of the induced emf is such that to opposite the cause producing it. 3- The emf induced in a secondary coil due to thtime variation in the lines of magnetic flux resulting from a primary coil linking with the secondary coil in the time interval Dt is given by the relation: 4- The emf induced by self induction as a result of the current DI passing through the coil in a time Dt is given by the relation: where L is the coefficient of self induction of coil . 5- The emf induced in a straight wire of length moving with a uniform velocity D v making an angle q with the magnetic field of magnetic flux density "B" is given by the relation: 6- The emf induced in the dynamo is given by the relation: when N is the number of turns, B the magnetic flux density, A is the area of the face of the coil, q is the angle confined between v and b and w is the angular velocity given by the relation: 7- The emf is maximum when q = 90^{o} ( sin 90^{o}= 1) 8- The relation between the effective value of current I_{eff} and its value I_{max} is given by : I_{eff}= 0.707 I_{max}. 9- The relation between the two emf in the two coils of the transofrmer is : . 10- The relation between the two currents in the two coils of the trnasformer is: 11- The efficiency of the trnsformer is given by the relation:

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ادْعُ إِلِى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ) يا قارئ خطي لا تبكي على موتي ... فاليوم أنا معك وغداً في التراب فإن عشت فإني معك ... وإن مت فاللذكرى ويا ماراً على قبري لا تعجب من أمري ... بالأمس كنت معك وغداً أنت معي